From Unofficial Stationeers Wiki
Motherboards are used in Computers. Their functionality changes depending on the inserted motherboard.
Warning - Motherboard (Logic) is being phased out. It is horribly glitchy. Discretion is advised
|Motherboard (IC Editor)||Can be used to edit the script on in Integrated Circuit (IC10).|
|Motherboard (Logic)|| Can be used to set variables and actions based on inputs (ex: if solar angle < 1, set solar panel vertical to 0)|
You have to set this for individual items, so mass configuration is very time-consuming.
|Motherboard (Sorter)||Allows to set the whitelist for the sorters to let through|
|Motherboard (Communications)||For trading with suppliers, additionally with connected Landing Pad, Satellite Dish, Vending Machine.|